WESTERN SCIENCE IN THE BEGINNING

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SCIENCE




In whatever way man conquered nature, is proof that science also existed.
Science was expressed as philosophical explanation (spiritualists) or craftsmanship (tools).
Period of mythology, ancient period, medieval era, renaissance period, modern era and contemporary age.




ERAS AND SCIENCE




Period of mythology,
ancient period,
medieval era,
renaissance period,
modern era
and contemporary age.




SCIENCE




Western science started in Miletus, Greece about the 5th century B.C.
The early philosophers explored topics such as religion, medicine, politics, economics, astronomy, climate change, crop growth, etc.
Philosophy and other subjects were interwoven, the method in use was deduction.




ANCIENT SCIENCE (THALES)




He thought of how to cross a river through the construction of a dam, predicted the occurrence of an eclipse accurately, invented an instrument for measuring the height of a pyramid, invented a tool with which sailors could detect the north pole.
Postulated the earth is flat.
He postulated water as the basic source and constituent of all things in nature.




THALES




Postulated that water is the source of all things (living and non living)
Volcanic eruptions resulted in combustion resulting in the release of hydrogen and oxygen .
At condensation water vapor is formed which is water.




PYTHAGORAS




Philosophized on good sound, theorized on the adequate length of a string.
Philosophized on the shape of the universe.
Insisted that the universe is made up of numbers.
The world is infinite while specific things are finite units.
Descriptions are understood better with numerical digits




DEMOCRITUS




Nature is made up of matter.
Matter comprise of different, small units.
A combination of the smallest unit of an element that cannot be broken equal matter.




FEATURES OF ATOM




Indestructible, indivisible, innumerable, unchangeable, always moving.
Have various sizes and shapes.
Attestations to above postulations include Dalton, Bohr, etc




FURTHER READINGS




Contributions of:
Anaximander, Aneximenes,
Empedocles, Plato and
Aristotle
to science in ancient times (as indicated in their philosophical postulations)




FURTHER READING




Science in:
Africa,
Eastern world,
The Americas




SCIENCE & MEDIEVAL ERA




The cradle of civilization championed by the Roman Empire was overpowered by the Barbarians in A.D. 476.
Available literature were destroyed.
Man the metaphysical being became prominent.
Philosophical speculations were limited to the Church fathers and Islamic scholars (Italy, Arabia).




MEDIEVAL SCIENCE




Innovations include:
Wearing of trousers, use of butter instead of olive oil, invention of barrels and tubs,
use of wheeled plough in farming,
planting of oats, rye, hops,
Use of water wheel for grinding corn




MEDIEVAL SCIENCE




Food beyond consumption was produced,
Cathedrals were funded,
Higher institutions were established,
the spinning wheel was invented to produce textile.
Sawmills and iron furnaces were improved with waterpower.
Printing was invented (bible production),
Gunpowder , firearms, etc were produced.




RENAISSANCE & SCIENCE




Is the link between the past and the future.
Reasoning was allowed to take the lead again since ancient Greek and Babylonians literature were found.
Nature was glorified and metaphysics discarded.




RENAISSANCE




Paintings were invented by Griotto, study of human anatomy began with De Vinci.
Columbus among others discovered new continents.
Study of nature through observation and mathematics began.
Formulation of hypothesis based on speculated principles at work started.




SCIENCE & ADVANCEMENT




Galileo discovered the moons near Jupiter.
Spermatozoa, bacteria and protozoa were discovered by Leeuwenhoek
Copernicus postulated that the earth rotates around the sun




MODERN SCIENCE




Circulation of blood in man was discovered by Harvey.
Isaac Newton invented differential calculus.
Leibniz invented integral calculus.




MODERN SCIENCE




Francis Bacon imposed induction as the adequate method of knowledge acquisition for the sciences.
Thomas Hobbes added the use of mathematics and deduction as knowledge acquisition method for science.




MODERN SCIENCE




Descartes postulated that general principles should lead to deduction, together with mathematics would lead to objective scientific findings.
General principles are known by intuition says Descartes.
Galileo and Newton insists that general principles are derived from experience.




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