Introduction to Project Management

Introduction to Project Management






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Projects and Project work






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What is a Project?






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What is a Project?






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Introduction






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Project Management Statistics






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Motivation for Studying Information Technology (IT) Project Management






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Advantages of Using Formal Project Management






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What is a Project?






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Examples of IT Projects






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Examples of IT Projects






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Project Attributes






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Project and Program Managers






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The Triple Constraint






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The Triple Constraint of Project Management






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15 Slides || 12 Easy Questions || 19 Intermediate Questions || 3 Hard Questions



Introduction to Project Management




Projects often appear to be mysterious: it can be difficult to define exactly, what a project is?

To the man or woman in the average organization, the word “project” may appear to arise rather in the same way because project are diverse, and may range from one or two people making an effort over a few days or weeks to dozens or even hundreds of people working over a period of years on a specific project. WHAT IS A PROJECT?




Projects and Project work




Projects and project work are often contrasted with process. What is a process?•Process describes the normal day-to-day activities of an organization, while the word project is often used to describe something outside normal day-to-day work.
- Of course, in some fields such as construction, research and software design, the normal day-to-day work is carrying out 'projects'.
- What then is a project?




What is a Project?




A project is a unique venture with a beginning and an end, conducted by people to meet established goals within parameters of cost, schedule and quality.
Buchanan and Boddy(1992) p. 8




What is a Project?




A project is a set of people and other resources temporarily assembled to reach a specified objective, normally with a fixed budget and with a fixed time period. Projects are generally associated with products or procedures that are being done for the first time or with known procedures that are being altered.

Graham (1985) pp. 1-2 (quoted in Buchanan and Boddy)




Introduction




Many organizations today have a new or renewed interest in project management.
Computer hardware, software, networks, and the use of interdisciplinary and global work teams have radically changed the work environment.
The U.S. spends $2.3 trillion on projects every year, or one-quarter its gross domestic product, and the world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion of its $40.7 gross product on projects of all kinds.




Project Management Statistics




Worldwide IT spending continues to grow, and Forrester Research predicts that U.S. IT spending will grow by another 5.7 percent in 2005, to reach $795 billion.
-In 2003, the average senior project manager in the U.S. earned almost $90,000 per year, and the average Project Management Office (PMO) Director earned more than the average Chief Information Officer ($118,633 vs. $103,925).
-The Apprentice, the number-one U.S. reality television show in 2004, portrayed the important role of project managers.

-Butler, Steve, “IT Spending,” Analyst Views, February 2004.
--PMI, Project Management Salary Survey, Third Edition, 2003.




Motivation for Studying Information Technology (IT) Project Management




IT projects have a terrible track record.
-A 1995 Standish Group study (CHAOS) found that only 16.2 percent of IT projects were successful in meeting scope, time, and cost goals.
-Over 31 percent of IT projects were canceled before completion, costing over $81 billion in the U.S. alone.




Advantages of Using Formal Project Management




- Better control of financial, physical, and human resources.
- Improved customer relations.
- Shorter development times.
- Lower costs.
- Higher quality and increased reliability.
- Higher profit margins.
- Improved productivity.
- Better internal coordination.
- Higher worker morale (less stress).




What is a Project?




A project is "a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result."
-Operations is work done to sustain the business.•A project ends when its objectives have been reached, or the project has been terminated.
-Projects can be large or small and take a short or long time to complete.

-PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge(PMBOK Guide) (2004), p. 5.




Examples of IT Projects




A help desk or technical worker replaces laptops for a small department.
-A small software development team adds a new feature to an internal software application.
-A college campus upgrades its technology infrastructure to provide wireless Internet access.




Examples of IT Projects




A cross-functional task force in a company decides what software to purchase and how it will be implemented.
-A television network develops a system to allow viewers to vote for contestants and provide other feedback on programs.
-A government group develops a system to track child immunizations.




Project Attributes




A project:
- Has a unique purpose.
-Is temporary.
-Is developed using progressive elaboration.
- Requires resources, often from various areas.
- Should have a primary customer or sponsor.
‒ The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project.
-Involves uncertainty.




Project and Program Managers




Project managers work with project sponsors, project teams, and other people involved in projects to meet project goals.
- Program: "A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually."
- Program managers oversee programs and often act as bosses for project managers.

- PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge(PMBOK Guide) (2004), p. 16.




The Triple Constraint




- Every project is constrained in different ways by its:
- Scopegoals: What work will be done?
- Time goals: How long should it take to complete?
- Cost goals: What should it cost?
- It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often-competing goals.




The Triple Constraint of Project Management




Successful project management means meeting all three goals (scope, time, and cost) –and satisfying the project’s sponsor!